Maggie lives in Tennessee and has a passion for both reenactment and fashion of the late 18th and early 19th Century; she discusses the various aspects and influences upon couture and military dress of the era.... . .
Finally both the British and French fleets have something to smile about - a fleet engagement in which the British take six prizes but the French secure the arrival of a much needed convoy of wheat.... . .
Albert lives in Tennessee and is one of the co-founders of HMS Acasta, a reenactment group of the Royal Navy of the early 1800s. He talks about his two impressions (ship's doctor and Bosun), the pursuit of authenticity, and other reenactment interests.... . .
Michelle lives in Queensland, Australia, and reenacts Brunswick hussars, cuirassiers, and mounted troops of many other eras. She discusses her passion for horses, tropical birds, and her experiences with reenactment.. . .
The severe yet gentle Lazare Carnot is by now seen as the main force behind the French Army. Through the levee en masse and an openness to men of talent his influence has already brought success.... . .
Paul lives in Wakefield, Yorkshire, and is a reenactor, author, and equitation coach. He discusses various aspects of his research on ‘well known but little researched regiments’ and interest regarding the myths of the era.. . .
Bill lives in Sydney, Australia, and owns Corps Sutler, a business that makes and provides re-enactors and production crews with researched, authentic, and accurate historical reproductions. He discusses the process of making such valued items.... . .
Chris is a re-enactor and Napoléonic collector who lives in Virginia. He is a member of 3eme Regiment de Cuirassiers. He discusses the role of heavy cavalry, his collections and event experiences - including his involvement in the 200th Anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo.. . .
Algerian corsairs and French privateers caused the US to reinstate a naval establishment in March 1794. Initially six frigates the design of Joshua Humphreys ensured this small fleet was very powerful indeed..... . .
Martin is a reenactor who lives in Chicago. He does impressions of various eras - from the Napoleonic to WWII. He discusses his interest in the Haitian Revolution and the role of black men in Military History.. . .
The French national standard of red, white, blue (red to the staff) was abolished and replaced with a standard of blue, white, red (blue to the staff) early 1794 - mainly due to the French marine arguing for change..... . .
From the start of the French Revolution many members of government were young - either in their 20's or early 30s - Saint-Just was just twenty-five when he arrived. They were eager, innovative, and prone to hubris.... . .
Both the USA and France exhibited signs of civic nationalism throughout the later years of the 18th Century and early 19th Century. Both nations (and others) reforged themselves and gained a new identity and sense of self.... . .
Between November 1793 and February 1794 an atrocious set of mass drownings took place to rid Nantes of prisoners - especially refractory priests and nuns. The instigator was Jean-Baptiste Carrier.. . .
Lazare Carnot, an instigator of the levée en masse, together with general Jourdan, won a notable - if not decisive - victory over the Austrians and Dutch at Wattignies. The timidity of the allies helped.... . .
When French frigates sought refuge in Genoese ports the British sent two 'cutting out' expeditions to seize them. They highlighted the difficult situation of 'neutrality' of places such as Genoa and Tuscany.. . .
HMS (Historical Maritime Society) is a group of mostly British naval re-enactors. Chris discusses what it is to be a member plus events, tv and documentary appearances, their aim to educate the public about life in Nelson's Navy (and other eras), and their links with HMS Trincomalee and the National Museum of the Royal Navy.. . .
By September 1793 the two Robespierre brothers - Maximilien and Augustin - were set to influence the future course of history - either through the 'Reign of Terror' or in the advancement of Napoléon Bonaparte.... . .
After Marie Antoinette was sent to the Conciergerie the descent into bloody madness gained momentum. With invasion, civil war, starvation, fear, and suspicion everywhere hundreds of thousands of informers scoured the land for suspects..... . .
With the Siege of Dunkerque ongoing the French knew that if they could sweep away Hanoverian and Hessian troops around Hondschoote (a village of many windmills) they would gain a notable victory.... . .
After the British and her auxiliaries split from the other coalition forces her commander, the Duke of York, marched his forces towards the coast. Spurred on by his government he commenced preparations to take old 'Dunkirk'.... . .
By 1899 the USA was embroiled in Cuba, an island that Spain considered not a colony but one of her provinces. What caused the USA to chart what some argue/d was a course of imperialistic ambitions?. . .
Catherine Curzon, aka Madame Gilflurt, is a popular blogger and author with her new book 'Life in the Georgian Court' due 2016 . She talks about some of the people (mostly royalty) that any one interested in the era should become acquainted with.. . .
By mid summer 1793 France was in dire straits. Despite the recent call for an extra levy, which had caused La Vendée to rise up in rebellion, the Convention decreed the arming of 800,000 men by forced conscription.... . .
28th June 1793 the Vendeans attacked Nantes, which if taken might have ended the Revolution. Their defeat pushed them back into the bocage country. Seeking reprisals the Convention sent Jean-Baptiste Carrier.... . .
In 1851 the USA agreed to have the third largest exhibition space of The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations. Derided at first eventually the American exhibits came to be appreciated.... . .
By 1794 the Charter of the world's largest trade venture was due for extension but war with France intervened. With interests in India which sat beside French colonies the British would no doubt continue a path of aggressive expansion.... . .
To celebrate the first anniversary of the fall of Louis XVI the Convention held a festival of unity. It was used to signify the new constitution, to try and unify a nation at war with itself, and to enhance the power of the Mountain..... . .
For the first nine months of 1793 the British Channel Fleet failed to entice the French fleet away from Belle-Isle, off Brest. Little happened, until the French sailors rebelled and forced their ships into the roads of Brest.... . .
June 1st/2nd 1793 saw the mob turn against the Convention to demand the arrest of the Twelve and certain leaders of the Girondins: the party that had brought war to France. With their fall the way to the Reign of Terror was open.... . .
Spain and France faced off against each other either side of the Pyrenees Mountains. The western (Atlantic) side saw little action, while the eastern (Mediterranean) side witnessed the Spanish invade Rousillon. Their aim was Perpignan.... . .
During the assault upon Famars and Valenciennes (May/June 1793) the first British regiment to be named in action was the 'Coldstream Guards'. With a long and distinguished service record they were the first British regiment to set foot in Europe for this particular war.... . .
The coalition forces entered France April 1793, this time including the British. They skirted the Scheldt River to besiege Condé and Valenciennes. In defence the French lost their generalissimo, Dampierre, when his thigh was shot away by a cannon.... . .
With treaties and agreements with both Britain and France the war in Europe caused concerns in Philadelphia. France requested the USA to fulfil her treaty agreement and sent 'Citizen' Genêt to pursue such. George Washington knew he could not anger Britain so declared neutrality.... . .
After his return from the failed Sardinian adventure Napoléon Buonaparte was caught up in the second revolt of Pasquale Paoli. Asked to join the revolt against the Convention the young officer remained loyal to France.... . .
After the French had been expelled from Belgium the coalition forces met to decide their future actions against France: either to 'wait and see' or to fight on 'with vigour'. They chose the latter, but underneath some of these 'jealous' nations had other aims.... . .
After the defection of Dumouriez the shock caused the formation of the one mechanism that would come to lead and create the 'Reign of Terror.' Dominated by men like Robespierre it would eventually introduce changes to the French army that allowed the rise of men like Napoléon.. . .
After the Battle of Neerwinden géneral Dumouriez's command became impossible: so he held secret discussions with the Austrians to march on Paris and topple the government. The Convention confronted him and he was forced to flee to the enemy.... . .
The French defeat at Neerwinden ended French hegemony in the Austrian Netherlands and the career of general Dumouriez, who then turned traitor. The political fallout was appalling as it helped lead to the immense suspicion in Paris that lead to the 'Reign of Terror.'. . .
As the coalition descended upon France fear gripped Paris. A criminal tribunal was set up to try traitors and counter-revolutionaries. This 'Extraordinary Tribunal' soon become the feared 'Revolutionary Tribunal'. Until it was suspended some 3000 men and women were sent to the scaffold.... . .
March 1793 Britain began to negotiate subsidies for foreign nations to maintain the war effort, of which one was Hesse-Cassel. With a history of providing 'Mercenary' troops Hesse-Cassel agreed to supply troops for three years, of which Britain defrayed all the costs.. . .
For the first half of the wars of coalition France used the 1777 pattern (Charleville) musket - a superb weapon which helped France achieve greatness in battle. Millions were manufactured and it became an iconic small-arm, esteemed by future grognards.. . .
France declared war against Spain, March 1793, making enemies for the Republic on all points of the compass. Spain believed that her forces would do well in their attempts to invade southern France, but in reality she was in deep decay.... . .
Laurent Luft, a resident and keen historian of Paris, talks about sites you can visit today that would have been key to events during the Revolution, as well as modern French attitudes towards Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and Napoléon.. . .
The French came to rely much on her volunteers - but they were prone to break easy. Together with the ill discipline in the fleet it made for a chaotic war. When both combined against Sardinia it was almost doomed to failure.... . .
March 1st 1793 the Austrians finally felt the time was ripe to regain the Austrian Netherlands. While the French besieged Maastricht, and tried to take Venlo, the Allies crossed the Rur river and began to push back the revolutionaries..... . .
After years of simmering tension the forced 'acquisition' of more men for the front was enough for the people of 'La Vendée'. They rose up in revolt March 1793 and quickly formed into three separate armies, which benefitted from the difficult terrain..... . .
By March 1793 the war had occasioned many sieges, both long and short. At such a high cost in men and matériel a siege was not undertaken lightly. Two weapons of choice were used: the mortar and the howitzer.. . .
17th February 1793 Dumouriez took but 13,000 men into the Dutch Republic, hoping to secure the region and Hollandsch Diep before the British could intervene. He managed to take Breda and besiege the fortress of Willemstad, but the British then arrived.... . .
After France declared war against Britain the Royal Navy was both increased and strengthened. One of the largest organisations in the world it required large funds and was reliant on a stable economy and a sufficient supply of manpower.. . .
Louis XVI - 'Citizen Capet' - faced trial accused of being a traitor, and 'tyrant of liberty'. At least half of his supposed crimes were aligned with the war. The trial vote resulted in 'punishment of death'.. . .
After the French took Mentz (Mayence) they turned East to take Frankfurt. But they were then overstretched and could not keep the city against 50,000 Prussians and Hessians. They therefore fell back on Mentz as the first campaign of the war ended.. . .
Throughout 1792 tens of thousands of volunteers joined the French army - often to cause chaos and ill discipline. Pressed on all sides the Convention decreed that two volunteer battalions would be joined with one regular battalion to form one Demi-brigade. Conscription throughout 1793 only exacerbated the mess.... . .
France issued two decrees in November and December 1792 which alarmed all nations in Europe - she offered to assist any people wishing to overthrow their government, as well as treat as enemies anyone who refused to accept 'liberty'.. . .
After the Battle of Jemappes Dumouriez triumphantly entered into Mons, Brussel, and Antwerpen as France occupied western Austrian Netherlands. Many in the Convention - including Marat - thought him a 'threat to liberty'.. . .
Late October 1792 the French made their way into the Austrian Netherlands and on the 6th November 1792 they confronted the weakened Austrians in front of Mons. The French took the day, causing the Austrians to flee into the city, and the whole of Belgium was then open to French occupation.. . .
In late September 1792 France invaded the Middle Rhine portion of the Holy Roman Empire and took the cities of Spire, Worms, and Mentz (Mayence). They could then have headed towards Coblentz and potentially end the war, but they did not.... . .
The words abattis, vedettes, bivouac, and redoubt would have been little understood by the majority in 1792, but with a war that lasted 22 years they became very familiar. What they mean is discussed.. . .
The life and execution of general Custine (General Mustache) says much about the fate of French commanders - if they did well then plaudits would follow; if they failed or become successful with pride then exile, trial, or death would follow.. . .
The state the French Navy as of October 1792 - now part of the war and still chaotic after the mutinies of Toulon and Brest in 1789 and 1790. Many officers had fled abroad and the funds were lacking to maintain the fleet. Yet within six months Britain would be set against France and the French fleet then gained much needed support from her government.. . .
The forced annexation of both Savoy and Nice gave much strategic land to France. With massacres along the coast it brought the Kingdom of Sardinia into the war and heralded future events both within France and within the Italian mainland.... . .
After the Battle of Valmy the two combatants remained opposite each other in their camps. Eventually starvation and disease forced the Prussians, Austrians, and the Royalist French to move away to make their horrid exit of France. Some 20,000 died en route.. . .
In 1792 the Convention received plans for a new system of semaphore towers: first built as a line from Paris to Lille it was completed in 1794 and signalled a victory of French arms. This 'military' system would then expand and vastly improve communications.. . .
22nd September 1792 and the newly created Convention declared that monarchy in France had been abolished and in its place a Republic proclaimed. What this meant for the war and her peoples is discussed. . .
20th September 1792
The Battle of Valmy and the 'cannonade of Valmy' would become symbols of the First French Republic. Although not a decisive battle it showed the French that they could stand up against the Prussians and Austrians, even best them.
The battle and its aftermath is discussed.. . .
After the fall of Verdun all that lay between the Austrians, Prussians, and Hessians, and the city of Paris, was the rugged and forested hills of the Argonne. The French formed a desperate defence and likened it to the famous last stand of the 300 Spartans...but ultimately it failed.. . .
The Battle of Baltimore (1814) saw the successful defence of the Maryland city soon after the burning of Washington. Part of the wider Chesapeake Campaign the background to the Battle of North Point is discussed.. . .
The violent reaction against the fall of Longwy and Verdun was expressed in Paris with the mass murder of clerics and aristocrats, during what later became known as the First Terror. Such events caused Britain to withdraw her Ambassador and edged that nation closer to war. It also signalled to Europe that France wished to oust all clerics and nobility from all nations.. . .
Potentially the most important date of the French Revolution - the storming of the Tuileries, the flight of Louis XVI, the massacre of the Swiss Guard, all heralded the end of the French monarchy. The war would no longer be waged in the name the King.. . .
The Prussians, the Hessians, and the French émigrés made their plan of campaign to commence August 1792 - a thrust from Luxembourg against Longwy and Verdun before marching onto Paris, plus two feints by the Austrians.. . .
The call to rush men to the frontiers became a famous decree. It brought 10,000 men (many sans culottes) into the war, but vacated Paris of many who would have hindered future events. It was the precursor of the levee en masse of 1793. . .
The French National Anthem began as a war - song for the soldiers of the Armée du Rhin, which was made famous by the Marseilles federates when they arrived in Paris in July 1792. The lyrics say much about French attitudes of the times.... . .
Of all the French generals of the first months of the war the most famous was La Fayette (or Lafayette). His time in America brought him renown, as did the period 1787 to 1791. Yet by June 1792 he had fallen out of favour with many.. . .
The 20th June 1792 saw the first storming of the Tuileries Palace, when Louis XVI was compelled to where the Phrygian red bonnet (bonnet rouge). La Fayette felt compelled to warn France of enemies foreign and domestic and the often thuggish fedérés were raised. The end of the Bourbons was nigh.. . .
The early skirmishes of the war had brought the spotlight on the Habsburg Ulan Regiment...with their distinctive hats, lances, and cut and dash they were considered lethal. Who were they and what made them unique?. . .
During late May and early June, 1792, La Fayette was quartered in the Vauban forts of Charlemont and Maubeuge. The Habsburgs made their first forays into France - against the fodder magazine of Bavay and then Maubeuge. Neither resulted in the much sought after first battle of the war.. . .
April 1792 and France sent three columns against the Austrians to open hostilities. Two failed miserably, and one lead to the murder of géneral Dillon, by his own men. It was not a good start for the French.. . .
In early 1792 France and 'Austria' held correspondence over the status of Alsace. Graf von Cobenzl laid out demands and the French Foreign Minister Dumouriez recommended war to Louis XVI. War was declared April 20th 1792. . .
The slave revolt on the French colony of Saint-Domingue caused consternation throughout the Caribbean and Europe. If there was any sign of what the French Revolution could unleash the alliance forming against France thought that this was it.. . .
The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire met the King of Prussia in Schloss Pillnitz 1791 to discuss the Polish Question where they made their famous Declaration that many consider a direct cause of the ensuing War of the First Coalition. . .
This is a project that aims to cover the wars that were a direct cause of the French Revolution and which melded into the Napoleonic Era. To help in that regard a map is needed. Such a map will allow an overlay of information about locations of battles and cities as the narrative progresses.... . .
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