The Wars of Coalition

An Historical Chronicle of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and of the USA, for the years 1792-1815

All Episodes

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 31 May 2017

The historiography of Lexington and Concord.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 08 May 2017

How the Congress came to be.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 59 Minutes 28 Apr 2017

Mark lives in New Zealand and works as a clinical psychologist. He has a passion for history, and collecting and painting Ancient and Napoléonic miniatures.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 21 Apr 2017

Why did traditional folk music regain popularity in the 1960s? Was it because people were dissatisfied?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 0 Minutes 19 Apr 2017

announcement by History Podcast 1792 - 1815 (+ USA history). . .

  Direct Link   Download 65 Minutes 07 Apr 2017

Maggie lives in Tennessee and has a passion for both reenactment and fashion of the late 18th and early 19th Century; she discusses the various aspects and influences upon couture and military dress of the era.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 01 Apr 2017

Finally both the British and French fleets have something to smile about - a fleet engagement in which the British take six prizes but the French secure the arrival of a much needed convoy of wheat.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 52 Minutes 24 Mar 2017

Albert lives in Tennessee and is one of the co-founders of HMS Acasta, a reenactment group of the Royal Navy of the early 1800s. He talks about his two impressions (ship's doctor and Bosun), the pursuit of authenticity, and other reenactment interests.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 19 Mar 2017

Women are found in all armies and navies; with the French they continue a long tradition of women at arms. . .

  Direct Link   Download 104 Minutes 10 Mar 2017

Michelle lives in Queensland, Australia, and reenacts Brunswick hussars, cuirassiers, and mounted troops of many other eras. She discusses her passion for horses, tropical birds, and her experiences with reenactment.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 05 Mar 2017

The severe yet gentle Lazare Carnot is by now seen as the main force behind the French Army. Through the levee en masse and an openness to men of talent his influence has already brought success.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 37 Minutes 24 Feb 2017

Scott lives in New York state and reenacts Alexander Hamilton and American Colonial history. He talks about himself and his tours.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 18 Feb 2017

The British government suspends habeas corpus and begins to make arrests.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 12 Feb 2017

With the Royal and catholic army destroyed the French send twelve columns (the infernal columns) through La Vendée in a murderous sweep. In reaction the chouannerie expands.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 94 Minutes 03 Feb 2017

Paul lives in Wakefield, Yorkshire, and is a reenactor, author, and equitation coach. He discusses various aspects of his research on ‘well known but little researched regiments’ and interest regarding the myths of the era.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 28 Jan 2017

The Austrian General Mack (von Leiberich) formulated a plan of a march on Paris; it started well with the capture of Landrecies then the French replied in force.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 45 Minutes 21 Jan 2017

Bill lives in Sydney, Australia, and owns Corps Sutler, a business that makes and provides re-enactors and production crews with researched, authentic, and accurate historical reproductions. He discusses the process of making such valued items.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 15 Jan 2017

President Lincoln's Address highlighted a new 'Middling' style of delivery, opposed to the conventional 'Classical' style.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 08 Jan 2017

After a successful conclusion of the Siege of Toulon Jacques François Coquille Dugommier becomes commander of the Armée des Pyrénées Orientales.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 31 Dec 2016

The turmoil of the French Revolution swept away both the ancien regime and notions of non-involvement in politics of ordinary people.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 26 Dec 2016

After a failed attempt to take Martinique in 1793 the British return early 1794. It happens to be the valiant action of the crew of the sloop HMS Zebra that help win the island.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 01 Dec 2016

Due to petty jealousies amongst the coalition forces Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia (Austria), takes over command of forces in the north.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 24 Nov 2016

Both Danton and Desmoulins are arrested and guillotined without warning; many cannot believe it. The Jacobin Club totally unravels.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 56 Minutes 17 Nov 2016

Chris is a re-enactor and Napoléonic collector who lives in Virginia. He is a member of 3eme Regiment de Cuirassiers. He discusses the role of heavy cavalry, his collections and event experiences - including his involvement in the 200th Anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 10 Nov 2016

Algerian corsairs and French privateers caused the US to reinstate a naval establishment in March 1794. Initially six frigates the design of Joshua Humphreys ensured this small fleet was very powerful indeed..... . .

  Direct Link   Download 59 Minutes 03 Nov 2016

Martin is a reenactor who lives in Chicago. He does impressions of various eras - from the Napoleonic to WWII. He discusses his interest in the Haitian Revolution and the role of black men in Military History.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 28 Oct 2016

A key moment in the Civil Rights Movement which showed a 'wonderful world of possibilities', what was its legacy?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 23 Oct 2016

The French national standard of red, white, blue (red to the staff) was abolished and replaced with a standard of blue, white, red (blue to the staff) early 1794 - mainly due to the French marine arguing for change..... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 30 Sep 2016

Angered by the proposed merger of Polish army units with Russian regiments Kosciuszko returns to Poland from exile to lead the revolt. He immediately wins a victory at Racławice. . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 21 Sep 2016

Poland suffered a second partition in 1793, so that by March 1794 a revolt is imminent. It breaks out when a cavalry officer marches his men towards Kraków.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 17 Sep 2016

The war against France pushes merchant ships southwards towards the Barbary Coast, a place of dread for both Europeans and Americans.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 08 Sep 2016

With hopes to maintain possession of her sugar and spice islands France decreed that all her slaves were made free.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 06 Sep 2016

From the start of the French Revolution many members of government were young - either in their 20's or early 30s - Saint-Just was just twenty-five when he arrived. They were eager, innovative, and prone to hubris.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 51 Minutes 25 Aug 2016

Both the USA and France exhibited signs of civic nationalism throughout the later years of the 18th Century and early 19th Century. Both nations (and others) reforged themselves and gained a new identity and sense of self.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 20 Aug 2016

Saxony is compelled to join the war. Sandwiched between Prussia and Austria she walks a political tightrope; her situation says much about the Holy Roman Empire.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 11 Aug 2016

After three months the Coalition forces have to evacuate the port - not before making an attempt to destroy the French fleet.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 19 Minutes 04 Aug 2016

The USA gained much land and the valuable port of New Orleans. The reasons why France sold such a large swathe of real estate, and why the USA bought it, are discussed.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 29 Jul 2016

This war continues the use of certain, unique artillery projectiles: grapeshot on both land and sea, and for navies: canister and chain-shot.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 21 Jul 2016

The Gettysburg address is a landmark document and speech of American History. In this first of a four part series we explore a series of statements and conclude whether they are fact or fiction.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 15 Jul 2016

After their expulsion from La Vendée the remnants of the insurgent army tried to join up with the British but were annihilated piecemeal by the pursuing Republican armies.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 10 Jul 2016

After months of unchecked powers the Convention decided to reign in their agents' powers - mostly to retain their own authority.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 27 Jun 2016

After losing Wissembourg the French reassembled: the Armée du Moselle, under Hoche, marched through the Vosges mountains towards Kaiserslautern.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 21 Jun 2016

France formally abandoned religion to introduce the Cult of Reason. It began with a Feast when a dancing girl of the Opera represented the 'Goddess of Reason'.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 1 Minutes 18 Jun 2016

A brief update/link to the ongoing map of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East of 1792.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 12 Jun 2016

Between November 1793 and February 1794 an atrocious set of mass drownings took place to rid Nantes of prisoners - especially refractory priests and nuns. The instigator was Jean-Baptiste Carrier.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 14 Minutes 04 Jun 2016

General Winfield Scott originated an idea to blockade the Confederate States of America - the Anaconda Plan - to choke trade, commerce, and force the South to the negotiation table.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 14 Minutes 30 May 2016

events from defeat at Nantes to the Battle of Cholet (17th October 1793) was a to-and- fro affair for the Royalists and Republicans. The flight from Cholet to Brittany was one for the age.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 23 May 2016

Marie-Antoinette faced her trial mid October, and was sent to the scaffold 16th October 1793. She was accused of conspiring with the enemy, and abuse of her son.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 07 May 2016

The Winchester Rifle is said to be the 'Gun That Won The West.' What was its origins, effects, and legacy?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 02 May 2016

Lazare Carnot, an instigator of the levée en masse, together with general Jourdan, won a notable - if not decisive - victory over the Austrians and Dutch at Wattignies. The timidity of the allies helped.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 24 Apr 2016

The 'Raid on Genoa' mentions two tartans - a form of Mediterranean small vessel. There were many - from feluccas to poleacres to xebecs.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 18 Apr 2016

After months of inactivity the Prussians, Hessians, and Austrians finally moved against Landau and Wissembourg in Alsace. They fought what later was termed the First Battle of Wissembourg.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 10 Apr 2016

When French frigates sought refuge in Genoese ports the British sent two 'cutting out' expeditions to seize them. They highlighted the difficult situation of 'neutrality' of places such as Genoa and Tuscany.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 55 Minutes 04 Apr 2016

HMS (Historical Maritime Society) is a group of mostly British naval re-enactors. Chris discusses what it is to be a member plus events, tv and documentary appearances, their aim to educate the public about life in Nelson's Navy (and other eras), and their links with HMS Trincomalee and the National Museum of the Royal Navy.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 28 Mar 2016

France abandoned the old Christian calendar in favour of a new one: new months, a new year, and a new ten day week.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 22 Mar 2016

After six months within Rousillon the Spanish had not progressed beyond Perpignan. The French attempted to defeat them at Trouillas.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 29 Minutes 17 Mar 2016

Whereas Europe had a year of revolution the USA witnessed gold fever. How did this occur and what did it mean?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 13 Mar 2016

From the simple dagger to the plug-bayonet to the socket bayonet this lethal weapon was a mainstay of the era.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 08 Mar 2016

With the Siege of Toulon Bonaparte's star began to rise. His attitudes and actions were later made famous as 'vignettes'.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 04 Mar 2016

A member of President Lincoln's cabinet was Salmon P. Chase who longed to be President himself. Highly influential his legacy is discussed.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 64 Minutes 28 Feb 2016

The conflict simulation game 'Toulon, 1793' (Legion Wargames)allows players to replay the famous siege in all its complexity. The designer discusses his board game.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 22 Feb 2016

After Lyons, the Sardinian border, and Marseilles were secured the French sent two separate armies against Toulon. Amongst them was Napoléon Bonaparte.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 18 Feb 2016

By September 1793 the two Robespierre brothers - Maximilien and Augustin - were set to influence the future course of history - either through the 'Reign of Terror' or in the advancement of Napoléon Bonaparte.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 12 Feb 2016

After Marie Antoinette was sent to the Conciergerie the descent into bloody madness gained momentum. With invasion, civil war, starvation, fear, and suspicion everywhere hundreds of thousands of informers scoured the land for suspects..... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 07 Feb 2016

With the Siege of Dunkerque ongoing the French knew that if they could sweep away Hanoverian and Hessian troops around Hondschoote (a village of many windmills) they would gain a notable victory.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 03 Feb 2016

After the British and her auxiliaries split from the other coalition forces her commander, the Duke of York, marched his forces towards the coast. Spurred on by his government he commenced preparations to take old 'Dunkirk'.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 24 Minutes 31 Jan 2016

By 1899 the USA was embroiled in Cuba, an island that Spain considered not a colony but one of her provinces. What caused the USA to chart what some argue/d was a course of imperialistic ambitions?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 15 Minutes 08 Jan 2016

The events of September contributed a great deal in the early developments of the conflict between the colonists and the British that would lead to the American War of Independence.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 13 Dec 2015

The French colony was taken after a brief siege, when the town realised it would not receive relief from a French fleet.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 2 Minutes 09 Dec 2015

With recent changes of timeline and a second host here is a 'revised' introduction to the podcast. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 09 Dec 2015

President Garfield was not in office for long, but in the time that he was his policies had long term effects. . .

  Direct Link   Download 41 Minutes 05 Dec 2015

Catherine Curzon, aka Madame Gilflurt, is a popular blogger and author with her new book 'Life in the Georgian Court' due 2016 . She talks about some of the people (mostly royalty) that any one interested in the era should become acquainted with.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 29 Nov 2015

By August 1793 the British army in Flanders had come to think that all was well, but the campaign was soon to prove the need for drastic reforms if it was to fare well in this war.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 23 Nov 2015

By mid summer 1793 France was in dire straits. Despite the recent call for an extra levy, which had caused La Vendée to rise up in rebellion, the Convention decreed the arming of 800,000 men by forced conscription.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 17 Nov 2015

28th June 1793 the Vendeans attacked Nantes, which if taken might have ended the Revolution. Their defeat pushed them back into the bocage country. Seeking reprisals the Convention sent Jean-Baptiste Carrier.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 11 Nov 2015

In 1851 the USA agreed to have the third largest exhibition space of The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations. Derided at first eventually the American exhibits came to be appreciated.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 09 Nov 2015

By the summer of 1793 the war in the Vendée had recommenced after the Easter lull. Two new men took command: La Rochejacquelein and Lescure. They helped take the towns of Thouars and Saumur.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 05 Nov 2015

The French ship Embuscade engaged HMS Boston 31st July 1793. Both of them were frigates and they highlighted the role of their ship type. Such frigates would become a mainstay of the era.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 14 Minutes 01 Nov 2015

The Treaty ended the War of 1812 between the USA and Britain. What is little known was the influence of the Tsar in the lead up to the agreement.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 29 Oct 2015

Lyons was France's second city but rebelled against the Convention in the summer of 1793. Her treatment was brutal.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 20 Oct 2015

By 1794 the Charter of the world's largest trade venture was due for extension but war with France intervened. With interests in India which sat beside French colonies the British would no doubt continue a path of aggressive expansion.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 15 Oct 2015

To celebrate the first anniversary of the fall of Louis XVI the Convention held a festival of unity. It was used to signify the new constitution, to try and unify a nation at war with itself, and to enhance the power of the Mountain..... . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 09 Oct 2015

With her allies of Britain and Spain Portugal could not deny her inclusion in the first coalition. She was generally weak, only Brasil bolstering her trade, and her Queen was quite deranged.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 05 Oct 2015

The summer months of 1793 witnessed Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles, and Toulon revolt against the Convention. With the British fleet off Toulon the Convention took bloody revenge upon the cities.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 02 Oct 2015

For the first nine months of 1793 the British Channel Fleet failed to entice the French fleet away from Belle-Isle, off Brest. Little happened, until the French sailors rebelled and forced their ships into the roads of Brest.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 22 Sep 2015

After months of isolation the French garrison at Mentz (Mayence) capitulated to the Prussians. It signalled the demise of général Custine.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 18 Sep 2015

After the Girondin delegates failed to put up arms Charlotte Corday travelled to Paris to kill the man who had drawn up the list of proscribed. Her execution has caused much debate ever since.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 15 Sep 2015

Accounts of the era often mention features of the many fortresses laid siege to: lunettes, hornworks, and covered way. What were these, and how did the forts fit in to the defence of France?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 10 Sep 2015

After their fall many Girondins fled into the west and those who arrived at Caen in Normandie began to raise troops to march on Paris...would they join the rebellion of La Vendée?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 08 Sep 2015

June 1st/2nd 1793 saw the mob turn against the Convention to demand the arrest of the Twelve and certain leaders of the Girondins: the party that had brought war to France. With their fall the way to the Reign of Terror was open.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 28 Aug 2015

Spain and France faced off against each other either side of the Pyrenees Mountains. The western (Atlantic) side saw little action, while the eastern (Mediterranean) side witnessed the Spanish invade Rousillon. Their aim was Perpignan.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 25 Aug 2015

The case that originated 'judicial review' in the United States of America was based on the separation of the executive and judicial elements of the government.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 19 Aug 2015

During the assault upon Famars and Valenciennes (May/June 1793) the first British regiment to be named in action was the 'Coldstream Guards'. With a long and distinguished service record they were the first British regiment to set foot in Europe for this particular war.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 15 Aug 2015

The coalition forces entered France April 1793, this time including the British. They skirted the Scheldt River to besiege Condé and Valenciennes. In defence the French lost their generalissimo, Dampierre, when his thigh was shot away by a cannon.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 10 Aug 2015

With treaties and agreements with both Britain and France the war in Europe caused concerns in Philadelphia. France requested the USA to fulfil her treaty agreement and sent 'Citizen' Genêt to pursue such. George Washington knew he could not anger Britain so declared neutrality.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 16 Minutes 28 Jul 2015

Hamilton successfully steered the excise tax into law by various means. Some senators thought that no one would oppose such an imposition.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 24 Jul 2015

The war was widened beyond Europe when Britain took the island of Tobago. In doing so the world's 'second world war' had begun.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 18 Jul 2015

After his return from the failed Sardinian adventure Napoléon Buonaparte was caught up in the second revolt of Pasquale Paoli. Asked to join the revolt against the Convention the young officer remained loyal to France.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 05 Jul 2015

After the French had been expelled from Belgium the coalition forces met to decide their future actions against France: either to 'wait and see' or to fight on 'with vigour'. They chose the latter, but underneath some of these 'jealous' nations had other aims.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 01 Jul 2015

After the defection of Dumouriez the shock caused the formation of the one mechanism that would come to lead and create the 'Reign of Terror.' Dominated by men like Robespierre it would eventually introduce changes to the French army that allowed the rise of men like Napoléon.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 28 Jun 2015

After the Battle of Neerwinden géneral Dumouriez's command became impossible: so he held secret discussions with the Austrians to march on Paris and topple the government. The Convention confronted him and he was forced to flee to the enemy.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 24 Jun 2015

The French defeat at Neerwinden ended French hegemony in the Austrian Netherlands and the career of general Dumouriez, who then turned traitor. The political fallout was appalling as it helped lead to the immense suspicion in Paris that lead to the 'Reign of Terror.'. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 21 Jun 2015

As the coalition descended upon France fear gripped Paris. A criminal tribunal was set up to try traitors and counter-revolutionaries. This 'Extraordinary Tribunal' soon become the feared 'Revolutionary Tribunal'. Until it was suspended some 3000 men and women were sent to the scaffold.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 15 Jun 2015

March 1793 Britain began to negotiate subsidies for foreign nations to maintain the war effort, of which one was Hesse-Cassel. With a history of providing 'Mercenary' troops Hesse-Cassel agreed to supply troops for three years, of which Britain defrayed all the costs.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 11 Jun 2015

For the first half of the wars of coalition France used the 1777 pattern (Charleville) musket - a superb weapon which helped France achieve greatness in battle. Millions were manufactured and it became an iconic small-arm, esteemed by future grognards.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 09 Jun 2015

By March 1793 Naples (whose queen was the sister of Marie Antoinette)was preparing for war. She began to make a secret compact with Britain.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 06 Jun 2015

Due to a depleted treasury the United States needed to raise much needed revenue. In 1791 a tax was imposed on whiskey which instantly caused a rebellion against it.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 03 Jun 2015

France declared war against Spain, March 1793, making enemies for the Republic on all points of the compass. Spain believed that her forces would do well in their attempts to invade southern France, but in reality she was in deep decay.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 56 Minutes 31 May 2015

Laurent Luft, a resident and keen historian of Paris, talks about sites you can visit today that would have been key to events during the Revolution, as well as modern French attitudes towards Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and Napoléon.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 29 May 2015

The French came to rely much on her volunteers - but they were prone to break easy. Together with the ill discipline in the fleet it made for a chaotic war. When both combined against Sardinia it was almost doomed to failure.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 23 May 2015

March 1st 1793 the Austrians finally felt the time was ripe to regain the Austrian Netherlands. While the French besieged Maastricht, and tried to take Venlo, the Allies crossed the Rur river and began to push back the revolutionaries..... . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 19 May 2015

After years of simmering tension the forced 'acquisition' of more men for the front was enough for the people of 'La Vendée'. They rose up in revolt March 1793 and quickly formed into three separate armies, which benefitted from the difficult terrain..... . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 16 May 2015

By March 1793 the war had occasioned many sieges, both long and short. At such a high cost in men and matériel a siege was not undertaken lightly. Two weapons of choice were used: the mortar and the howitzer.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 11 May 2015

17th February 1793 Dumouriez took but 13,000 men into the Dutch Republic, hoping to secure the region and Hollandsch Diep before the British could intervene. He managed to take Breda and besiege the fortress of Willemstad, but the British then arrived.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 09 May 2015

The French declared war on the Dutch (specifically their leader the Stadtholder) February 1st 1793. Having had a recent revolt of her own, her politics was unstable and her economy ruined.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 06 May 2015

After France declared war against Britain the Royal Navy was both increased and strengthened. One of the largest organisations in the world it required large funds and was reliant on a stable economy and a sufficient supply of manpower.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 03 May 2015

France declared war on Britain 1st February 1793, an almost certainty after Britain withdrew her ambassador from Paris after the fall of Louis XVI. Britain, however, was divided in opinion.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 28 Apr 2015

Louis XVI was executed 21st January 1793. The immediate aftermath throughout Paris was not what many of the Convention wished for, and some sources state that a profound terror gripped France.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 7 Minutes 24 Apr 2015

A consideration of the Indian tribes. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 21 Apr 2015

Louis XVI - 'Citizen Capet' - faced trial accused of being a traitor, and 'tyrant of liberty'. At least half of his supposed crimes were aligned with the war. The trial vote resulted in 'punishment of death'.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 14 Apr 2015

After the French took Mentz (Mayence) they turned East to take Frankfurt. But they were then overstretched and could not keep the city against 50,000 Prussians and Hessians. They therefore fell back on Mentz as the first campaign of the war ended.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 15 Minutes 10 Apr 2015

Throughout 1792 tens of thousands of volunteers joined the French army - often to cause chaos and ill discipline. Pressed on all sides the Convention decreed that two volunteer battalions would be joined with one regular battalion to form one Demi-brigade. Conscription throughout 1793 only exacerbated the mess.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 07 Apr 2015

France issued two decrees in November and December 1792 which alarmed all nations in Europe - she offered to assist any people wishing to overthrow their government, as well as treat as enemies anyone who refused to accept 'liberty'.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 17 Minutes 04 Apr 2015

The decade long war had various causes, the westward push of settlers being one. Washington inherited a 'poisoned chalice' which made Indian affairs a priority.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 31 Mar 2015

After the Battle of Jemappes Dumouriez triumphantly entered into Mons, Brussel, and Antwerpen as France occupied western Austrian Netherlands. Many in the Convention - including Marat - thought him a 'threat to liberty'.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 14 Minutes 26 Mar 2015

Late October 1792 the French made their way into the Austrian Netherlands and on the 6th November 1792 they confronted the weakened Austrians in front of Mons. The French took the day, causing the Austrians to flee into the city, and the whole of Belgium was then open to French occupation.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 19 Mar 2015

In late September 1792 France invaded the Middle Rhine portion of the Holy Roman Empire and took the cities of Spire, Worms, and Mentz (Mayence). They could then have headed towards Coblentz and potentially end the war, but they did not.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 16 Mar 2015

The words abattis, vedettes, bivouac, and redoubt would have been little understood by the majority in 1792, but with a war that lasted 22 years they became very familiar. What they mean is discussed.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 10 Mar 2015

The life and execution of general Custine (General Mustache) says much about the fate of French commanders - if they did well then plaudits would follow; if they failed or become successful with pride then exile, trial, or death would follow.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 08 Mar 2015

The state the French Navy as of October 1792 - now part of the war and still chaotic after the mutinies of Toulon and Brest in 1789 and 1790. Many officers had fled abroad and the funds were lacking to maintain the fleet. Yet within six months Britain would be set against France and the French fleet then gained much needed support from her government.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 14 Minutes 04 Mar 2015

The forced annexation of both Savoy and Nice gave much strategic land to France. With massacres along the coast it brought the Kingdom of Sardinia into the war and heralded future events both within France and within the Italian mainland.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 26 Feb 2015

The Siege Lille witnessed 30,000 balls and 6,000 bombs reign down on the city, and Austria tried to take the formidable Vauban fort/city. After one week they had to retire.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 15 Minutes 22 Feb 2015

After the Battle of Valmy thousands of Prussians/Austrians died from dysentery and bloody flux...cures and attitudes of the times helped and hindered in equal measure.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 21 Minutes 17 Feb 2015

The actual Battle is explained, along with the fear the Marylanders had of the British bayonet.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 12 Feb 2015

After the Battle of Valmy the two combatants remained opposite each other in their camps. Eventually starvation and disease forced the Prussians, Austrians, and the Royalist French to move away to make their horrid exit of France. Some 20,000 died en route.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 17 Minutes 07 Feb 2015

Valmy brought to the French public's awareness the power and effectiveness of French artillery. How this arm of the military developed is discussed, up to the Ordinance of Gribeauval.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 02 Feb 2015

In 1792 the Convention received plans for a new system of semaphore towers: first built as a line from Paris to Lille it was completed in 1794 and signalled a victory of French arms. This 'military' system would then expand and vastly improve communications.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 31 Jan 2015

22nd September 1792 and the newly created Convention declared that monarchy in France had been abolished and in its place a Republic proclaimed. What this meant for the war and her peoples is discussed. . .

  Direct Link   Download 17 Minutes 24 Jan 2015

20th September 1792 The Battle of Valmy and the 'cannonade of Valmy' would become symbols of the First French Republic. Although not a decisive battle it showed the French that they could stand up against the Prussians and Austrians, even best them. The battle and its aftermath is discussed.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 20 Jan 2015

After the fall of Verdun all that lay between the Austrians, Prussians, and Hessians, and the city of Paris, was the rugged and forested hills of the Argonne. The French formed a desperate defence and likened it to the famous last stand of the 300 Spartans...but ultimately it failed.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 19 Jan 2015

The Battle of Baltimore (1814) saw the successful defence of the Maryland city soon after the burning of Washington. Part of the wider Chesapeake Campaign the background to the Battle of North Point is discussed.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 16 Jan 2015

The violent reaction against the fall of Longwy and Verdun was expressed in Paris with the mass murder of clerics and aristocrats, during what later became known as the First Terror. Such events caused Britain to withdraw her Ambassador and edged that nation closer to war. It also signalled to Europe that France wished to oust all clerics and nobility from all nations.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 13 Jan 2015

The easy capture of two key Vauban forts by the Prussians/Austrians was seen by the French as treachery by the magistrates of those garrison towns. It led to the September Massacres.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 16 Minutes 07 Jan 2015

Potentially the most important date of the French Revolution - the storming of the Tuileries, the flight of Louis XVI, the massacre of the Swiss Guard, all heralded the end of the French monarchy. The war would no longer be waged in the name the King.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 02 Jan 2015

An infamous document that caused violent reaction in France, the Manifesto laid out why the Allies were invading France, and the consequences for the French if they dared resist.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 29 Dec 2014

The Prussians, the Hessians, and the French émigrés made their plan of campaign to commence August 1792 - a thrust from Luxembourg against Longwy and Verdun before marching onto Paris, plus two feints by the Austrians.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 26 Dec 2014

Prussia finally joined the war in July 1792 and sent 50,000 troops to Coblenz to join the 20,000 French émigré troops already there. These noble refugees were all too ready to go to war.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 20 Dec 2014

The call to rush men to the frontiers became a famous decree. It brought 10,000 men (many sans culottes) into the war, but vacated Paris of many who would have hindered future events. It was the precursor of the levee en masse of 1793. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 13 Dec 2014

The French National Anthem began as a war - song for the soldiers of the Armée du Rhin, which was made famous by the Marseilles federates when they arrived in Paris in July 1792. The lyrics say much about French attitudes of the times.... . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 08 Dec 2014

Towards the end of June 1792 the French had to rethink their military aims: they wished to take Brussel, by use of rivers, and the control of rivers. This explains their plans.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 05 Dec 2014

Of all the French generals of the first months of the war the most famous was La Fayette (or Lafayette). His time in America brought him renown, as did the period 1787 to 1791. Yet by June 1792 he had fallen out of favour with many.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 13 Minutes 03 Dec 2014

The 20th June 1792 saw the first storming of the Tuileries Palace, when Louis XVI was compelled to where the Phrygian red bonnet (bonnet rouge). La Fayette felt compelled to warn France of enemies foreign and domestic and the often thuggish fedérés were raised. The end of the Bourbons was nigh.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 27 Nov 2014

The early skirmishes of the war had brought the spotlight on the Habsburg Ulan Regiment...with their distinctive hats, lances, and cut and dash they were considered lethal. Who were they and what made them unique?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 20 Nov 2014

During late May and early June, 1792, La Fayette was quartered in the Vauban forts of Charlemont and Maubeuge. The Habsburgs made their first forays into France - against the fodder magazine of Bavay and then Maubeuge. Neither resulted in the much sought after first battle of the war.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 16 Nov 2014

Cavalry horses required a large amount of forage - if it could not be transported in then local farmers' land was pillaged. How is discussed.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 13 Nov 2014

April 1792 and France sent three columns against the Austrians to open hostilities. Two failed miserably, and one lead to the murder of géneral Dillon, by his own men. It was not a good start for the French.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 10 Nov 2014

The French 1791 instructions for the infantry became famous and renowned due to the many victories of the French regiments. It could not have had a worse introduction.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 14 Minutes 05 Nov 2014

The second part of the famous debacle between Clinton and Jay.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 7 Minutes 03 Nov 2014

April 1792 and France deployed four armies: three set against two Austrian and one emigrant. What and where were these?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 30 Oct 2014

In early 1792 France and 'Austria' held correspondence over the status of Alsace. Graf von Cobenzl laid out demands and the French Foreign Minister Dumouriez recommended war to Louis XVI. War was declared April 20th 1792. . .

  Direct Link   Download 16 Minutes 26 Oct 2014

The Clinton/Jay New York election was beset with scandal. What and why so is considered.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 25 Oct 2014

The likes of Brissot long agued for war. Why was this and what were their arguments? Why were they listened to?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 22 Oct 2014

The slave revolt on the French colony of Saint-Domingue caused consternation throughout the Caribbean and Europe. If there was any sign of what the French Revolution could unleash the alliance forming against France thought that this was it.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 10 Minutes 20 Oct 2014

As France headed towards war in 1791 she was in a shambles. Why was this and what was the state of the nation, and her armed forces?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 7 Minutes 20 Oct 2014

Prussia appeared to be a dominant force, but was her King up to a struggle with France? How was her army as of 1791?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 16 Oct 2014

In 1791 Spain was perceived to be backward in some ways, yet strong militarily - her navy was on par with France's.. . .

  Direct Link   Download 8 Minutes 13 Oct 2014

Despite being neutral the Swiss were mentioned in the Agreement of Mantua - what was this Confederacy, as well as the small bordering states of the Holy Roman Empire which faced France?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 5 Minutes 12 Oct 2014

Chris makes his introductions and sets out what the American Monitor hopes to achieve, as well as the use of sources. . .

  Direct Link   Download 7 Minutes 09 Oct 2014

With the Agreement of Mantua the Kingdom of Sardinia placed herself in the limelight. What was this nation, and what forces could she marshal?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 12 Minutes 06 Oct 2014

The nation that would prove to be France's nemesis throughout 1791 and 1792 was the Habsburg Monarchy - what was this, and what were her armies like?. . .

  Direct Link   Download 9 Minutes 04 Oct 2014

The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire met the King of Prussia in Schloss Pillnitz 1791 to discuss the Polish Question where they made their famous Declaration that many consider a direct cause of the ensuing War of the First Coalition. . .

  Direct Link   Download 11 Minutes 03 Oct 2014

A brief overview of the problems foreign enclaves within France (such as Avignon) and how the major nations that bordered France reacted to the Revolution. . .

  Direct Link   Download 7 Minutes 01 Oct 2014

This is a project that aims to cover the wars that were a direct cause of the French Revolution and which melded into the Napoleonic Era. To help in that regard a map is needed. Such a map will allow an overlay of information about locations of battles and cities as the narrative progresses.... . .

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