In this episode, we discuss the various myths of Herakles, his iconography and the various ways in which he was worshipped, and his role as a pan-European hero Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2017/06/047-herakles-from-zero-to-hero.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the lives of various mythic heroes, including Cadmus, Perseus, Sisyphus and Bellerophon, Tantalus and Pelops, Atreus and Thyestes, Tyndareus and the Dioscuri, Ixion and Pirithous, and Meleager Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2017/06/046-monsters-and-heroes.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the various types of ancient Greek musical instruments during the Classical Period and their uses and the lives and works of the three great 5th century BC lyric poets who pioneered the epinikion (victory ode)--Simonides, Bacchylides, and Pindar Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2017/06/045-music-and-victory-odes.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the years spanning 454-446 BC, covering Athens' increasingly imperialistic behavior and the final years of the First Peloponnesian War Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2017/05/043-imperial-athens.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the years spanning 461-454 BC, covering the early part of the First Peloponnesian War / "The Undeclared War" Synopsis: (2:35) The balance of power shifted towards Athens, when Megara flipped sides, creating a wall between the Peloponnese and Attica. When the Spartans peacefully settled with the helots at Mt Ithome, Athens settled them in Naupactus, angering the Spartans and causing further alarm for the Corinthians, who saw Athenian encroachment on their western trade routes. War began on land and sea around the Saronic Gulf between Athens and Argos against the Corinthians, Epidaurians, and Aeginetans. (10:51) At the same time, the Athenians sent a force to aid the Egyptians in revolt against the Persians. After an initial victory, the Persian garrison was held up in Memphis and placed under siege. Artaxerxes ordered Themistocles to lead an army to put down the revolt but he refused to fight against his fellow Athenians and so he committed suicide. (19:20) Meanwhile, the Athenians continued to fight against the Corinthians on land, until finally the Spartans entered the fray. The Spartans, after linking up with the Thebans in Boeotia, won a narrow victory over the Athenians at Tanagra, but suffered heavy casualties in the process, causing them to head back to Sparta. (27:35) The Athenians rebounded and won a decisive victory over the Boeotians at Oenophyta, with the result that most of Boeotia, Phocis, and Locris fell under their dominion. That same year, the Athenians forced the Aeginetans to surrender and become a subject ally. The Athenians followed this up with a series of raids all along the Peloponnesian coast and gained greater naval control of Corinthian Gulf. (35:40) Athens’ remarkable string of successes came to a crashing halt in Egypt, as the Persian army finally responded to the revolt and utterly destroyed the Athenian and rebel forces. As a consequence, there was a whole rash of rebellions in the Delian League, and the Athenians moved the league treasury from Delos to the Athenian Acropolis. Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2017/05/042-undeclared-war.html Facebook: www.facebook.com/thehistoryofancientgreecepodcast
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Today’s episode is brought you by our new Patreon supporters, Francine and Sam Parker, as well as PayPal donors Laurent Vermer, Niels Geypen, and Ben Mann. Thank you all for your donations in support of the podcast. If you would like to support The History of Ancient Greece podcast, you too can become a monthly Patreon supporter or a one-time donor. Links below: Patreon: www.patreon.com/thehistoryofancientgreecepodcast
Paypal: https://www.paypal.me/RyanStitt Intro by Ahmet Ozakca of the Groovy Historian Podcast
Twitter: https://twitter.com/GroovyHistorian. . .
In this episode, we discuss the years spanning 461-454 BC, covering the early part of the First Peloponnesian War / "The Undeclared War" Show Notes: www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2017/05/…war.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the battle of the Eurymedon River; Sparta's clashes with the anti-Spartan coalition of Argos, Tegea, Elis, and Mantinea; the assassination of Xerxes and eventual ascension to the Persian throne of his son, Artaxerxes; Themistocles' medism trial and his defection to the court of Artaxerxes; the revolt of Thasos from the Delian League; the debilitating earthquake in the Peloponnese; the ostracism of Cimon and the reforms and assasination of Ephialtes; and the severing of the Athenian-Spartan alliance Intro by Peta Greenfield and Fiona Radford of the Partial Historians Podcast Website: https://partialhistorians.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thepartialhistorians Twitter: https://twitter.com/p_historians. . .
In this episode, we discuss the aftermath of the Persian Wars and how the Athenians and Spartans both come to terms with the new state of affairs; the formation of the Delian League; and the political factions in Athens and Sparta and their struggle to dictate foreign policy in the 470s BC Intro by Rob Sims of the History in the Making Podcast Website: http://www.hitmpodcast.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hitmpodcast Twitter: https://twitter.com/HITMpodcast. . .
In this episode, we discuss the tensions between the Spartan-Athenian alliance during the winter of 480/79 BC, their eventual makeup (sort of), and the Greek counterattack against the Persians in spring 479 BC, culminating in the twin victories at the battles of Plataea and Mycale, effectively ending the first phase of the Greco-Persian wars Intro by Charlie of The Almost Forgotten Podcast Website: http://almostforgotten.squarespace.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/thealmostforgot. . .
In this episode, we discuss the events leading up to, the battle of Salamis itself, and its aftermath Intro by Katy and Nathan of Queens Podcast Website: http://queenspodcast.libsyn.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/QueensPodcast Twitter: https://twitter.com/Queens_Podcast. . .
In this episode, we discuss the ascension of Xerxes to the Persian throne; Xerxes' preparations for his invasion of Greece; the Hellenic league and their preparations to defend Greece; and the simultaneous land and sea battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium Intro by Nitin Sil of the Flash Point History Podcast Website: http://flashpointhx.podomatic.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/FLASHPOINTHX Twitter: https://twitter.com/FlashpointHx. . .
In this episode, we discuss the events leading up to, the battle of Marathon itself, and its aftermath; the folklore that grew up after Marathon; and the internal political happenings of Athens during the 480s BC Intro by Roxanne of the Mythology Translated Podcast Website: http://mythologytranslated.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/mythtrans. . .
In this episode, we discuss the events of the Ionian Revolt, beginning with Miletus' rebellion from the Persian Empire and ending with the sack of Miletus; the internal political happenings of Athens during the 490s BC; the Spartan destruction of Argos at Sepeia; and the early life of one of Athens' key political figures for the next four decades, Themistocles Intro by Aven McMaster & Mark Sundaram of the Endless Knot Website: http://www.alliterative.net Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/user/Alliterative Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/alliterativeendlessknot Twitter: https://twitter.com/AvenSarah and https://twitter.com/Alliterative. . .
In this episode, we discuss the Persian conquest of Thrace, their failed invasion of Scythia, and the submission of Macedon that brought Persia right up to the foothills of Mt Olympus, at the very borders of mainland Greece; the diplomatic follies of the Athenians; and whether war was or was not inevitable, at least in the last decade of the 500s BC Intro by Lantern Jack of Ancient Greece Declassified Website: http://greecepodcast.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/greecepodcast Twitter: https://twitter.com/greecepodcast. . .
In this episode, we discuss the ascension of Darius to the Persian throne; his consolidation of the empire and eastern campaigns; Zoroastrianism and the role Ahura-Mazda played in his reign; and his reform program, with a special focus on his creation of a new script (Old Persian), his new capital of Persepolis, his bureaucratic satrapies, the Royal Road, his "sort of" Red Sea/Nile River canal, and the creation and influence of the gold "Daric" Intro by Jeff Wright of Trojan War: The Podcast Website: http://trojanwarpodcast.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/trojanwarpodcast Twitter: https://twitter.com/TrojanWarPod. . .
In this episode, we discuss the political happenings during the reign of the Persian king, Cambyses, with a particular focus on Polykrates of Samos; the Persian conquest of Egypt; the failed campaigns in Africa against the Nubians, Cyreneans, and Carthaginians; and the “madness" of Cambyses Intro by Drew Vahrenkamp of the Wonders of the World Podcast Website: http://wonderspodcast.libsyn.com/podcast Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/wonderspodcast Twitter: https://twitter.com/wonderspodcast. . .
In this episode, we discuss the conquests (Lydia, Ionia, Babylon) and administration of Cyrus, whose deeds and qualities were so exceptional that he earned the moniker "the Great" Intro by Vivek Vasan of the Historical India Podcast Website: http://historicalindiapodcast.com Facebook: https://facebook.com/histoindicast Twitter: https://twitter.com/histoindicast. . .
In this episode, we discuss the life, influences, drawbacks, and positives of the “Father of History”, Herodotus; and the political events of the Near East in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC that culminated with Cyrus overthrowing the Medes and elevating the Achaemenid Persians among the other chief powers of their time (the Lydians, Neo-Babylonians, and Egyptians) ca. 1000 BC - the Scythians, Cimmerians, Parthians, Medes, and Persians arrive on the Iranian Plateau ca. 725 BC - Sargon II of Assyria receives tribute from the tribes of the Zagros, the Medes included 708-686 BC - reign of first Median king, Deiokes 705-675 BC - reign of first Persian king, Achaemenes 686-633 BC - reign of Median king, Phraortes 675-640 BC - reign of Persian king, Tespis 646 BC - Ashurbanipal of Assyria destroys Elam 640-580 BC - the Persian king Cyrus I rules Anshan 633 BC - Phrarotes dies in battle, Scythian domination over Media 627 BC - Death of Ashurbanipal 626 BC - Revolt of Babylon by Nabopolassar, new ruling dynasty (Neo-Babylonians) 625 BC - Cyaxerxes overthrows Scythians, re-establishes Median control over the Zagros 614 BC - Medes and Neo-Babylonians sack Ashur; Median princess Amytis is married to the crowned prince of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar II, uniting the two kingdoms 612 BC - Ninevah falls, end of Assyrian Empire 605 BC - Naboplassar dies, succeeded by his son Nebuchadnezzar II 600-585 BC - Cyaxerxes wages war against Urartians 590-585 BC - Cyaxerxes wages war against Lydians 585 BC - Battle of Halys River; result was a tie due to an eclipse predicted by Thales; shortly after the battle Cyaxerxes dies and is succeeded by his son, Astyages. 580-559 BC - the Persian king Cambyses I rules Anshan 580 BC - plagued by visions that his grandson would be his ruin, Astyages marries his daughter, Mandane, to a minor Persian vassal---Cambyses I 576 BC - Mandane gives birth to Cyrus II; Astyages had another vision of his ruin and orders the child to be killed; his general Harpagus delegates the job to a shepherd who instead raises the kid as his own 566 BC - the 10-year-old Cyrus is discovered and sent to live with his real parents 559 BC - Cambyses dies and the 17-year-old Cyrus becomes king of Anshan 552 BC - Cyrus leads a revolt against his grandfather, Astyages, in revenge for trying to have him killed as an infant; at the battle of Hyrba leading the Persian cavalry he trounces the Median cavalry 551 BC - indecisive battle of the Persian Border between armies of Astyages and Cyrus 550 BC - battle of Pasargadae saw Cyrus routing Astyages' army and becoming sole ruler of the Iranian Plateau; beginning of the Achaemenid Persian Empire Intro by Alison Innes and Darrin Sunstrum of the MythTake Podcast Website: https://mythtake.blog Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mythtake Twitter: https://twitter.com/InnesAlison and https://twitter.com/darrinsunstrum. . .
In this episode, part 2 of 2 on the Greco-Etruscan-Carthaginian relations during the 6th/5th centuries BC, we discuss the tyrannies that took place in Sicily in the first half of the 5th century BC at Rhegium/Zancle (Messana), Himera, Syracuse, Gela, and Akragas; the First Greco-Punic War and its aftermath/legacy; the decline of Etruscan power in Campania; changes in the Carthaginian constitution following the war; and finally, the explorations of Himilco and Hanno the Navigator 507 BC - Cleander becomes tyrant of Gela 498 BC - Cleander dies and his son, Hippocrates, becomes tyrant of Gela 494 BC - Samian fugitives seize the city of Zancle at the behest of Anaxillas, tyrant of Rhegium 491 BC - Anaxillas kicks the Samians out of Zancle, repopulates the city, and rules as tyrant over it along with Rhegium 491 BC - Hippocrates dies and Gelon overthrows his sons to become tyrant of Gela 488 BC - Theron becomes tyrant of Akragas 485 BC - The Syracusans force the Gamori out of the city; they seek assistance from Gelon who then uses his military to take Syracuse for himself; Gelon then makes himself tyrant of Syracuse and his brother, Hieron, takes over as tyrant of Gela 483 BC - Gelon forcibly removes the inhabitants of Kamarina and Megara Hyblaea to Syracuse; Gelon and Theron make an alliance 481/0 BC - Representatives from Athens arrive at court of Gelon, seeking aid in their upcoming clash with Persia, but Gelon declines 480 BC - the Battle of Himera (Hamilcar loses his life) 478 BC - Gelon dies and his brother, Hieron, becomes tyrant of Syracuse; their brother, Polyzalos, takes over as tyrant of Gela 476 BC - Anaxillas dies and Micythus acts as regent tyrant of Rhegium 474 BC - Hieron and Cumaean Greeks defeat the Etruscans in a naval battle near Cumae; Etruscan power effectively eliminated in Campania (relegated to north Tyrrhenian Sea) 473 BC - Rhegians and Tarentines are defeated by Iapygians 472 BC - Theron dies and his son, Thrasydaeus, becomes tyrant of Akragas 471 BC - Thrasydaeus tries to attack Hieron but is routed in battle and forced to flee to Megara, where he was arrested and publicly executed; Micythus founds colony of Pyxus 467 BC - The two young sons of Anaxillas leave Syracuse to retake the throne of Rhegium; Micythus steps down peacefully; Hieron dies and his brother, Thrasybolous becomes tyrant of Syracuse 466 BC - Thrasybolous was ousted as tyrant of Syracuse 461 BC - Leophron was ousted as tyrant of Rhegium and Zancle ca. 460 BC - the Sicilian Greek cities had all broken away from the dominions of Gelon and Theron and had overthrown the tyrants’ heirs Intro by Guillaume Lamothe of the History of Exploration Podcast Website: https://historyofexploration.net Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/historyofexploration. . .
In this episode, part 1 of 2 on the Greco-Etruscan-Carthaginian relations during the 6th/5th centuries BC, we discuss the rise of Carthage as the dominant Phoenician colony in the western Mediterranean Sea 814 BC - traditional foundation date of Carthage ca. 650 BC - Carthage had grown to become a regional trade hub, centered on the north-south trading circuit of the Tyrrhenian Sea and west-east Levantine-Iberian circuit 586-573 BC - the Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar II, sieges Tyre; this wrecked havoc on Phoenician trade presence in the west, which allowed Carthage to step in to the vacuum and rise to economic superpower in the western Mediterranean ca. 580 BC - the Carthaginians and Elymians of Segesta engage in military hostilities with Greek colonists who try to colonize the land opposite of Motya; fearing future hostilities, the Carthaginians in turn formed a military alliance with the powerful Etruscans of central Italy ca. 560 BC - the Carthaginian general, Malchus, "conquers" Motya, Panormus, and Solus ca. 550-530 BC - Mago was "king" of Carthage ca. 535 BC - Battle of Alalia took place off coast of Corsica, in which the Phocaeans were completely expelled from the island by the Carthaginians and Etruscans; Corsica fell under Etruscan control ca. 535-510 BC - 25-year war to pacify the island of Sardinia for Carthage ca. 530-510 BC - Hasdrubal was "king" of Carthage ca. 530 BC - Tartessos and Gades are brought to heel; Carthage controls southern Spain ca. 525 BC - Phoenicians refuse to sail against their kinfolk and thus the plans of the Persian king, Cambyses, to conquer Carthage are thwarted 524 BC - the Etruscans are defeated outside of Cumae by the Cumaean Greeks, who reasserted their power in Campania, while lessening that of the Etruscans 515 BC - the Spartan Dorieus attempts to colonize Cinyps in north Africa but is expelled by Carthage 512 BC - Doreius tries again to colonize, this time at Eryx in Sicily but is once again stopped by Carthage and this time he loses his life ca. 510-480 BC - Hamilcar was "king" of Carthage 509 BC - Etruscan power is further diminished in central Italy, when Rome overthrows their yoke, abolishing their monarchy and establishing the Roman Republic; Carthage and Rome become commercial allies by signing a treaty ca. 500 BC - By this point, Carthage had gained control over the north African coastline from modern-day Morocco to the border of Cyrene Intro by Brandon Huebner of the Maritime History Podcast Website: http://maritimehistorypodcast.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/maritimehistorypodcast Twitter: https://twitter.com/HistoriaMare. . .
In this episode, we discuss Cleisthenes' political victory over Isagoras that allowed him to institute his overhaul of the Athenian constitution; the different democratic changes he instituted; and the consequences (both good and bad) from this new revolutionary government 508 BC - Cleisthenes' and Cleomenes' power-sharing agreement formally split when Cleomenes' backed Cleisthenes' rival, Isagoras, for the archonship 507 BC - Isagoras removed citizenship from those enfranchised by Solon and the Peisistratids; Cleisthenes convinced the people to elect Alcmeon for the following year's archonship, which caused Isagoras to seek the military support of Cleomenes, forcing Cleisthenes and the rest of the Alcmeonidai to flee Athens; when Isagoras began acting like a tyrant and threatened to dissolve the boule, the Athenians besieged Isagoras, Cleomenes, and the Spartans on the Acropolis; Isagoras fled the city and the humiliated Cleomenes, along with his army, was allowed safe passage back to Sparta; Cleisthenes was then recalled and through the archonship of Alcmeon, he implemented his democratic reforms of the Athenian constitution, while at the same time a delegation was sent to the court of Artapherenes at Sardis to seek an alliance with the Persians against further Spartan hostility 506 BC - Cleomenes orchestrated a three-prong attack of Attica (Peloponnesians from the southwest, the Thebans from the northwest, and the Chalcidians from the north) with the intent of installing Isagoras as tyrant of Athens; but due to differences with Corinth and between the two kings, the Spartans turned back, allowing the Athenians to defeat the Thebans and Chalcidians in succession and annexed some of their land 505 BC - The Thebans wanted revenge and so they enlisted the aid of Aegina against Athens; the Aeginetans thus laid waste to many demes on the coastline but the Athenians didn't respond because at the behest of an oracle from Delphi they were advised to wait thirty years 504 BC - Cleomenes tried once again to invade Attica, this time to install Hippias as tyrant, but once again was thwarted by the Corinthians. . .
In this episode, we discuss the ascension and political happenings of the tyrannies of Peisistratos and his two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, at Athens; the economic reforms that they undertook; their patronage of the arts and public works in the Agora and Acropolis, as well as at other religious sanctuaries in Attica; and their encouragement of religious festivals, especially the Greater Panathenaia and the Dionysia 565 BC - Peisistratos captured Nisaea, bringing an end to the wars with Megara, which ended the troublesome food blockage and enhanced his reputation 561 BC - Peisistratos seized the Acropolis and make himself tyrant, much to the chagrin of Solon 558 BC - Solon died of old age 556 BC - Resistance mounted against Peisistratos, leading the nobles to seek an alliance with the exiled Alcmeonidai; they were recalled to Athens and Peisistratos fled the city; the political alliance soon collapsed, so Megacles of the Alcmeonidai instead realigned with Peissistratos through a political marriage and thus he became tyrant of the city again; but this too was short-lived and Peisistratos was driven from the city a second time 547 BC - earthquake fells the temple of Apollo at Delphi; the Alcmeonidai were able to gain a special position of privilege thanks to their funding of the rebuilding of the temple 546 BC - After spending ten years cultivating powerful allies and a large personal army, Peisistratos invaded Attica; he crushed the Athenian army near Pallene, and became tyrant for the third and final time 540 BC - Miltiades the Elder established a colony in the Thracian Chersonese and ruled it as a tyrant, only subordinate to Peisistratos' overarching authority 534 BC - Thespis was first winner of tragedy competitions at the Dionysia 528/7 BC - Peisistratos died and the tyranny was passed to Hippias and Hipparchus 525/4 BC - archonship of Cleisthenes of the Alcmeonidai 524/3 BC - archonship of Miltiades the Younger of the Philaids 524 BC - Miltiades the Elder died and his eldest nephew, Stesagoras, replaced him as tyrant of the Thracian Chersonese 519 BC - the Athenians defended the Plataeans militarily against the Thebans 515 BC - Stesagoras was assassinated and replaced by his younger brother, Miltiades the Younger, who immediately quelled the uprising and formed an alliance with king Olorus of Thrace by marrying his daughter 515/4 BC - second archonship of Cleisthenes, but he tried to make it something more than titular (as the tyrants held the unofficial power), and for that he was banished from Athens 514 BC - Hipparchus was assassinated by the Tyrannicides, Harmodius and Aristogeiton; afterwards, Hippias' rule became oppressive 513 BC - Cleisthenes' mercenary army was defeated by Hippias' mercenary forces near Lypsidrion in northern Attica 511 BC - Cleisthenes' uses his families special privilege to get the Delphic oracle to coax Cleomenes and the Spartans to assist them in removing Hippias as tyrant; unfortunately, their first force was defeated near Phaleron 510 BC - Cleisthenes' second attempt was successful, though; Hippias was forced into exile, where he would eventually make his way to the Persian court of Darius; immediately after this the Thebans and Athenians engaged in hostilities again over Plataea, with the result of another Athenian victory Intro by Doug Metzger of the Literature and History Podcast Website: http://literatureandhistory.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/literatureandhistory Twitter: https://twitter.com/lahpodcast. . .
In this episode, we discuss the life of the great Athenian statesman, Solon, who from his position of sole archonship, enacted various economic, political, and legal reforms that would later form the backbone for Athenian democracy in the Classical Period ca. 625 BC - severe agrarian crisis causes the Athenians to look for new land--their solution was to establish a cleruchy on Salamis; this led to continuous war with Megara, who also held claims to the island ca. 605 BC - in order to defend their trade routes into the Black Sea, Athens challenges Mytilene for control of Sigeion in the Troad, an event which was arbitrated by Periander in favor of Athens (thanks to Solon's argument) 595 BC - Solon and Peisistratos led forces that defeated the Megarians 594/3 BC - Solon appointed as sole archon to reform the constitution, which (among many other things) eliminated debt slavery and helped ease the land crisis; though wildly successful, his reforms' immediate aftermath led to increased competition amongst the elite for political offices 593-583 BC - Solon's self-imposed exile for 10 years following his reforms so that he couldn't be persuaded to change anything, during which he visited Egypt, Cyprus, Lydia, and Ionia 591/0 BC - political strife led to anarchia as they were unable to elect the three archons; eventually restored 580s-560s BC - The three dominant political factions (Pediakoi, Peralioi, and Diakrioi) competed for control 586/5 BC - second bout of anarchia; once again was eventually restored 582/1 BC - archonship of Damasias, at the end of which he refused to step down 579 BC - after two and half years, Damasias was driven out of the archonship; afterwards, a board of 10 archons were appointed to govern Athens 578 BC - three traditional offices of the archons were re-established 575 BC - great ramp built up the Acropolis; noble families competed for prestige through the funding of the construction of new buildings and statues on the Acropolis, such as the Temple of Athena Poleis, the precursor to the Parthenon, and a statue of Athena Promachos 566 BC - the Great Panathenaia was instituted by the archon, Hippocleides ca. 565 BC - Solon recognized that Peisistratos was harboring feelings for a revolution to end the political strife of the three dominant political factions. . .
In this episode, we discuss the early history of Athens from the mythical kings to the abolishment of the monarchy in the Dark Ages to the rise of the oligarchic constitution and finally to the social and economic crises at the end of the 7th century BC ca. 900 BC - Medontidai archon/basileus of Athens was pre-eminent in Attica ca. 900-750 BC - the synoecism of Attica took place 752 BC - length of Medontidai archonship changed from life to ten years 681 BC - three annually elected archons (eponymous, basileus, polemarch) was introduced ca. 650 BC - six more archons were introduced (called the Thesmothetai); collectively together with the other three they are known as the College of Nine Archons; full aristocratic revolution of Athens has taken hold 632 BC - Cylon unsuccessfully attempted to establish an Athenian tyranny 621 BC - Draco enacted first written constitution in Athenian history. . .
In this episode, we discuss the early history of Sparta and its growing pains that ultimately led to its rise to hegemony over what modern scholars called the Peloponnesian League ca. 900-800 BC - the syncoecism of the four villages on the west bank of the Eurotas River resulted in the polis of Lacadaemon (Sparta) ca 800-750 BC - a fifth village found three miles from the other villages is incorporated into Sparta, the old Mycenaean town of Amyclae ca. 780-750 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Charilaus (the nephew of the semi-mythical lawgiver Lykurgas who supposedly reformed Sparta) ca. 760-740 BC - reign of Agiad king, Teleklos ca. 750-725 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Nicander ca. 740-720 BC - the First Messenian War brought about the annexation of Messenia and the formation of the helot system that transformed Sparta into a slave-holding state like no other Greek poleis ca. 740-700 BC - reign of Agiad king, Alkamenes ca. 725-675 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Theopompos 706 BC - illegitimate Spartans, known as "Parthenai", were exiled to Italy where they founded Taras ca. 700-665 BC - reign of Agiad king, Polydoros ca. 675-650 BC - the poets Alcman and Tyrtaeus flourished at Sparta ca. 675-645 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Anaxandridas 669 BC - the Spartans were defeated by Pheidon and the Argives at Hysiae ca. 668-650 BC - thanks to their defeat at the hands of Argos, the helots revolted with the backing of Argos, resulting in the Second Messenian War; the Spartans, though, were able to put the revolt down thanks to the martial vigor of Tyrtaeus ca. 665-640 BC - reign of Agiad king, Eurycrates ca. 645-625 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Zeuxidamas ca. 640-615 BC - reign of Agiad king, Anaximander I ca. 625-600 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Anaxidamos ca. 615-590 BC - reign of Agiad king, Eurycratides ca. 600-575 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Archidamos I ca. 590-560 BC - reign of Agiad king, Leon 583 BC - Sparta may have assisted with the overthrow of the Kypselid tyranny at Corinth ca. 575-550 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Agasicles 572 BC - Sparta may have helped Elis regain control over the sanctuary of Olympia again from Pisa ca. 560 BC - the "Battle of the Fetters" resulted in a devastating Spartan loss to Tegea ca. 560-525 BC - reign of Agiad king, Anaxandridas II 556 BC - the Spartans, with Chilon as ephor, helped to overthrow the Orthagorid tyranny at Sicyon ca. 550-515 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Ariston ca. 550 BC - Sparta finally subdued Tegea, but instead of conquering them, they enacted diplomacy, marking the beginnings of Peloponnesian League 547 BC - Spartans are approached by the Lydians for an alliance against Persia, but the Spartans never provide aid as they still have Argos to deal with 546 BC - the "battle of Champions" resulted in a Spartan defeat of Argos and the annexation of the region of Kynuria from the Argives 525-522 BC - the Spartans and Corinthians join together to depose Polycrates of Samos as tyrant 520-490 BC - reign of Agiad king, Kleomenes 515-491 BC - reign of Eurypontid king, Demaratos 515-512 BC - Kleomenes' half-brother, Dorieus, tried to found the colony of Cinyps on the Libyan coast but he was ultimately driven out by Carthage 510 BC - Dorieus was killed in battle against the Carthaginians as he tried to establish a second colony, this one in western Sicily. . .
In this episode, we discuss the program of the Ancient Olympic games in its entirety and introduce the other Panhellenic festivals Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/08/021-athletics-and-panhellenic-games.html. . .
In this episode, we describe the new schools of thought that began to percolate in the 6th century BC about our existence and role in this universe absent from the gods Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC) Anaximander of Miletus (611-546 BC) Anaximenes of Miletus (585-528 BC) Pherecydes of Syros (ca. 580-520 BC) Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 570-495 BC) Xenophanes of Colophon (ca. 570-470 BC) Heraclitus of Ephesus (ca. 535-475 BC). . .
In this episode, we discuss part 2 of 2 on the influential people whose writings give us incite into the economic, social, and political happenings that reshaped archaic age Greece ca. 625 BC - the Penthiliadai, the ruling family of Mytilene, were ousted, leading to rival factions competing for power on Lesbos ca. 610 BC - the tyrant Melanchrus was ousted by a faction that included Alcaeus' brothers and Pittacus; Myrsilus became the next tyrant ca. 605 BC - Myrsilus dies, Athens challenges Mytilene for control of Sigeion in the Troad, an event which was arbitrated by Periander in favor of Athens ca. 600 BC - political unrest again took root on Lesbos, which forced the poets Sappho and Alcaeus into exile ca. 590 BC - the Mytileneans entrusted Pittacus with absolute power to heal the sores of the city; in doing so, he recalled all exiles and enacted a general amnesty ca. 590-580 BC - Sappho instituted a school of music and poetry for upper-class women on Lesbos 578 BC - Pittacus lays down absolute power and retires from political life Pittacus of Lesbos (648-568 BC) Sappho and Alcaeus of Lesbos (ca. 630-570 BC) Bias of Priene (fl. 6th century BC) Cleobulus of Rhodes (fl. 6th century BC) Aesop (620-564 BC) Stesichorus of Metauros (ca. 630-555 BC) Earliest stages of the Gortyn legal code (ca. 600-525 BC) Theognis of Megara (fl. 550 BC) Phocylides of Miletus (fl. 550 BC) Hipponax of Ephesus (fl. 550 BC) Anacreon of Teos (ca. 570-485 BC) Ibycus of Rhegium (fl. 525 BC). . .
In this episode, we discuss the changes in literary creation that took place in the 7th and 6th centuries BC; and part 1 of 2 on the influential people whose writings give us incite into the economic, social, and political happenings that reshaped archaic age Greece ca. 800-700 BC - The "Epic Cycle" was constructed, which includes the works of "Homer" ca. 750-700 BC - Hesiod flourished ca. 700-675 BC - Terpander and Thaletas instituted musical schools at Sparta ca. 680 BC - Archilochus wrote the first non-epic poetry on the historical record ca. 675-650 BC - Alcman, Tyrtaeus, Callinus, and Semonides all flourished ca. 630-600 BC - Mimnermus flourished; Arian introduced the dithyramb to Corinth. . .
In this episode, we discuss the new political phenomena arising in various parts of the Greek world in the 7th and 6th centuries BC, called tyranny, by focusing on four poleis in the Peloponnese in particular: Pheidon of Argos (the military cause), Cypselus and Periander of Corinth (the economic cause), Cleisthenes of Sicyon (the ethnic cause), and Theogenes of Megara (the unsuccessful attempt). Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/07/016-age-of-tyranny.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the Greek emigration eastward into the Chalcidice Peninsula, Thrace, the Hellespont, the Bosporus, the Black Sea, and northern Africa during the 7th and 6th centuries BC; their relations with the Lydians and Egyptians until around 550 BC; and the development of coinage Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/07/015-colonization-and-east.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the causes of colonization (shortage of land and trade); the Greek emigration westward into Italy, Sicily, France, Spain, Corsica, and Sardinia during the 8th, 7th, and 6th centuries BC; the development of the trireme; and their growing tensions with the Etruscans and Phoenicians (Carthaginians) until around 550 BC Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/07/014-colonization-and-west.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the revolutionary changes in warfare that took place in the 8th and 7th centuries BC that were strictly Greek and reflect the abstract nature of the polis; the cult of the bloodlust god, Ares; and the Lelantine War, the first large-scale war on the Greek record after the mythical Trojan War and the first instance in which these military changes were employed Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/07/013-hoplite-warfare.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the transitional governments in the early stages of the centrally unified polis, as the waning power of the basileus becomes supplanted by a landowning group of nobles; the economic and social divisions in the early polis between the nobles and commoners brought on by a spike in population in Greece; and the second great author of ancient Greece, a man named Hesiod, who speaks to us about life and society in the emerging polis from the point of view of the ordinary citizen. Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/06/012-oligarchs-and-hesiod.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the community (demos), household (oikos), and economy in the late "Dark Age"; and its role in the evolution of the city-state (polis) as a socio-political structure Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/06/011-from-oikos-to-polis.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss early Greek religion as formalized by Homer and Hesiod; the development of Panhellenism; and the four predominant Panhellenic sanctuaries of the 8th century BC (Olympia, Delos, Delphi, and Dodona) Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/06/010-panhellenism.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence for the late "Dark Age" during the 9th and early 8th centuries BC; Greece's cultural reawakening thanks to their contact with the Phoenicians; the development of the Greek alphabet; and the evolution of early "Geometric" vase painting Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/05/009-greek-resurgence.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence for the early "Dark Age" during the 11th and 10th centuries BC; the emigration of Greeks to Anatolia; and the first great author of ancient Greece, a man named Homer, who gives us incite into the society and culture of the early Dark Age through his two great epic poems---the Iliad and the Odyssey Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/05/008-dark-age-and-homer.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the Trojan War myth; the historical evidence for Mycenaean conflict in Anatolia; the Bronze Age collapse in both Greece and the Near East; and the so-called "Dorian Invasion" southwards into Greece Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/04/007-late-bronze-age-collapse.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence for the Mycenaean Greeks of the late Bronze Age, ca. 1650-1250 BC Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/04/006-mycenaean-greece.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the myths and archaeological evidence for the Minoans on the island of Crete, who were an early source of cultural inspiration for the Mycenaean Greeks; the volcanic eruption that blew apart the island of Thera in the mid-17th century BC and was a catalyst for the decline of the Minoan civilization; and the ultimate subordination of the Minoans by the Mycenaean Greeks in the 15th and 14th centuries BC Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/04/005-minoan-crete.html. . .
In this episode, we discuss the archaeological evidence for the early Bronze Age on mainland Greece and the Cycladic Islands; the arrival of the Indo-Europeans; and the rediscovery of three legendary Bronze Age cities (Troy, Knossos, and Mycenae) in the latter part of the 19th century AD Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/04/004-early-bronze-age-greece.html. . .
In this episode, we leave the realm of myth and trace the development of early human activity in Greece, culminating in the domestication of plants and animals and the rise of the earliest villages Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/04/003-stone-age-greece.html. . .
The first part of this episode is a brief introduction to the podcast; who I am, what my motivation is for doing this, and what I hope to achieve, and in the second part, we describe the geography of Greece and its natural resources Show Notes: http://www.thehistoryofancientgreece.com/2016/04/001-let-there-be-greece.html. . .
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